Latest Pubmed articles about Swine flu

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Circulation of influenza in backyard productive systems in central Chile and evidence of spillover from wild birds.

Wed, 04/18/2018 - 15:00
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Circulation of influenza in backyard productive systems in central Chile and evidence of spillover from wild birds.

Prev Vet Med. 2018 May 01;153:1-6

Authors: Jimenez-Bluhm P, Di Pillo F, Bahl J, Osorio J, Schultz-Cherry S, Hamilton-West C

Abstract
Backyard productive systems (BPS) are recognized as the most common form of animal production in the world. However, BPS frequently exhibit inherent biosecurity deficiencies, and could play a major role in the epidemiology of animal diseases and zoonoses. The aim of this study was to determine if influenza A viruses (IAV) were prevalent in backyard poultry and swine BPS in central Chile. Through active surveillance in Valparaiso and Metropolitan regions from 2012 - 2014, we found that influenza virus positivity by real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) ranged from 0% during winter 2012-45.8% during fall 2014 at the farm level. We also obtained an H12 hemagglutinin (HA) sequence of wild bird origin from a domestic Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), indicating spillover from wild birds into backyard poultry populations. Furthermore, a one-year sampling effort in 113 BPS in the Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins (LGB ÓHiggins) region showed that 12.6% of poultry and 2.4% of swine were positive for IAV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indicative of previous exposure of farm animals to IAV. This study highlights the need for improved IAV surveillance in backyard populations given the close interaction between domestic animals, wild birds and people in these farms, particularly in an understudied region, like South America.

PMID: 29653729 [PubMed - in process]

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Evidence of exposure of domestic pigs to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in Nigeria.

Wed, 04/18/2018 - 15:00
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Evidence of exposure of domestic pigs to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in Nigeria.

Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 12;8(1):5900

Authors: Meseko C, Globig A, Ijomanta J, Joannis T, Nwosuh C, Shamaki D, Harder T, Hoffman D, Pohlmann A, Beer M, Mettenleiter T, Starick E

Abstract
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) potentially transmit to swine as shown by experiments, where further reassortment may contribute to the generation of pandemic strains. Associated risks of AIV inter-species transmission are greater in countries like Nigeria with recurrent epidemics of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) in poultry and significant pig population. Analysis of 129 tracheal swab specimens collected from apparently healthy pigs at slaughterhouse during presence of HPAI virus H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria for influenza A by RT-qPCR yielded 43 positive samples. Twenty-two could be determined by clade specific RT-qPCR as belonging to the H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1c and confirmed by partial hemagglutinin (HA) sequence analysis. In addition, 500 swine sera were screened for antibodies against influenza A virus nucleoprotein and H5 HA using competition ELISAs and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. Serologically, 222 (44.4%) and 42 (8.4%) sera were positive for influenza A virus NP and H5 antibodies, respectively. Sera reacted to H5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains by HI suggesting exposure of the Nigerian domestic pig population to these viruses. We report for the first time in Nigeria, exposure of domestic pigs to H5N1 virus. This poses potential public health and pandemic risk due to interspecies transmission of avian and human influenza viruses.

PMID: 29651056 [PubMed - in process]

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Glycosylation of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase of Influenza A Virus as Signature for Ecological Spillover and Adaptation among Influenza Reservoirs.

Wed, 04/18/2018 - 15:00
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Glycosylation of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase of Influenza A Virus as Signature for Ecological Spillover and Adaptation among Influenza Reservoirs.

Viruses. 2018 04 07;10(4):

Authors: Kim P, Jang YH, Kwon SB, Lee CM, Han G, Seong BL

Abstract
Glycosylation of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the influenza provides crucial means for immune evasion and viral fitness in a host population. However, the time-dependent dynamics of each glycosylation sites have not been addressed. We monitored the potential N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of over 10,000 HA and NA of H1N1 subtype isolated from human, avian, and swine species over the past century. The results show a shift in glycosylation sites as a hallmark of 1918 and 2009 pandemics, and also for the 1976 "abortive pandemic". Co-segregation of particular glycosylation sites was identified as a characteristic of zoonotic transmission from animal reservoirs, and interestingly, of "reverse zoonosis" of human viruses into swine populations as well. After the 2009 pandemic, recent isolates accrued glycosylation at canonical sites in HA, reflecting gradual seasonal adaptation, and a novel glycosylation in NA as an independent signature for adaptation among humans. Structural predictions indicated a remarkably pleiotropic influence of glycans on multiple HA epitopes for immune evasion, without sacrificing the receptor binding of HA or the activity of NA. The results provided the rationale for establishing the ecological niche of influenza viruses among the reservoir and could be implemented for influenza surveillance and improving pandemic preparedness.

PMID: 29642453 [PubMed - in process]

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Calcium phosphate nanoparticle (CaPNP) for dose-sparing of inactivated whole virus pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in mice.

Wed, 04/18/2018 - 15:00
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Calcium phosphate nanoparticle (CaPNP) for dose-sparing of inactivated whole virus pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in mice.

Vaccine. 2017 08 16;35(35 Pt B):4569-4577

Authors: Morçӧl T, Hurst BL, Tarbet EB

Abstract
The emergence of pandemic influenza strains, particularly the reemergence of the swine-derived influenza A (H1N1) in 2009, is reaffirmation that influenza viruses are very adaptable and influenza remains as a significant global public health treat. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of adjuvants is an attractive approach to improve vaccine efficacy and allow dose-sparing during an influenza emergency. In this study, we utilized CaPtivate Pharmaceutical's proprietary calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP) vaccine adjuvant and delivery platform to formulate an inactivated whole virus influenza A/CA/04/2009 (H1N1pdm) vaccine as a potential dose-sparing strategy. We evaluated the relative immunogenicity and the efficacy of the formulation in BALB/c mice following single intramuscularly administration of three different doses (0.3, 1, or 3µg based on HA content) of the vaccine in comparison to non-adjuvanted or alum-adjuvant vaccines. We showed that, addition of CaPNP in vaccine elicited significantly higher hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), virus neutralization (VN), and IgG antibody titers, at all dose levels, relative to the non-adjuvanted vaccine. In addition, the vaccine containing CaPNP provided equal protection with 1/3rd of the antigen dose as compared to the non-adjuvanted or alum-adjuvanted vaccines. Our data provided support to earlier studies indicating that CaPNP is an attractive vaccine adjuvant and delivery system and should play an important role in the development of safe and efficacious dose-sparing vaccines. Our findings also warrant further investigation to validate CaPNP's capacity as an alternative adjuvant to the ones currently licensed for influenza/pandemic influenza vaccination.

PMID: 28716554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Proposed Surveillance for Influenza A in Feral Pigs.

Wed, 04/18/2018 - 15:00
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Proposed Surveillance for Influenza A in Feral Pigs.

Ecohealth. 2016 06;13(2):410-4

Authors: Dalziel AE, Peck HA, Hurt AC, Cooke J, Cassey P

Abstract
Pigs carry receptors for both avian- and human-adapted influenza viruses and have previously been proposed as a mixing and amplification vessel for influenza. Until now, there has been no investigation of influenza A viruses within feral pigs in Australia. We collected samples from feral pigs in Ramsar listed wetlands of South Australia and demonstrated positive antibodies to influenza A viruses. We propose feral pigs, and their control programs, as an available resource for future surveillance for influenza A viruses.

PMID: 27174429 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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