Articles

Prevention is the role of governments, not health systems

BMJ Recent Articles - Fri, 01/18/2019 - 14:20
We are told that prevention is at the heart of the long term plan for the NHS, published last week (doi:10.1136/bmj.l80; doi:10.1136/bmj.l85). This sounds like good news; prevention is, after all,...
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Some men who were unable to access PrEP through NHS trial are now HIV positive, charities report

BMJ Recent Articles - Fri, 01/18/2019 - 13:00
Large numbers of gay and bisexual men trying to access pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP) against HIV infection through NHS England’s trial have been turned away because clinics have run out of places,...
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Helen Salisbury: Patients lose out when practices compete

BMJ Recent Articles - Fri, 01/18/2019 - 12:40
With too few doctors,1 nurses,2 and experienced admin staff to go around, general practices are endlessly poaching from each other, and the pool of available talent is shrinking.When I first became a...
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The future of social care

BMJ Recent Articles - Fri, 01/18/2019 - 12:35
The long term plan for the NHS sets out an ambitious and wide ranging agenda for improving the health and care of the population of England. Delivering this agenda depends critically on tackling...
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New agreement on branded drugs for the NHS

BMJ Recent Articles - Fri, 01/18/2019 - 12:31
The new Voluntary Scheme for Branded Medicines Pricing and Access began on 1 January and was negotiated between the Department of Health and Social Care and the Association of the British...
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Using artificial intelligence to assess clinicians’ communication skills

BMJ Recent Articles - Fri, 01/18/2019 - 12:30
Artificial intelligence (AI) has been defined as the capability of a machine to mimic intelligent human behaviour.1 To limited extents, AI has arrived. We can give orders to our smartphones and talk...
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[Swine-spread severe influenza-associated pneumonia: A case report and literature review].

Latest Pubmed articles about Swine flu - Thu, 01/17/2019 - 20:00
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[Swine-spread severe influenza-associated pneumonia: A case report and literature review].

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2018 Nov 28;43(11):1266-1271

Authors: Liu T, Jiang Y, Ouyang R

Abstract
We report and analyze the clinical data of the first case of severe pneumonia caused by influenza B virus from swine. The patient, a 62 year-old male domestic pig breeder, was admitted to hospital because of fever and muscle pain for 5 days, and anhelation for 3 days. One week before the onset of disease, the patient kept close contact with pigs. CT scan of the chest showed diffuse infiltration in both lungs. Influenza B virus antigen detection (colloidal gold method) was repeatedly positive. These all confirmed influenza B virus infection. Poor appetite, weight loss, cough, poor spirit of pigs, positive influenza B virus antigen test occurred in the pig, while the patient had no history of exposure to influenza B-infected patients. It was likely that influenza B virus was transmitted from domestic pigs to the patient by droplets or close contact. Influenza B virus epidemics always occur every five or six years a time, and patients and carriers are the main source of infection. After searching the Pubmed, Web of science, Elsevier, Wanfang, and CNKI databases, it was found that although there were many studies on influenza B virus infecting seals, ferret, domestic pigs, guinea pigs, and other animals, there was no case report for animal-to-human infection. It is the first case report of type B influenza virus transmission from domestic pigs to people in the world, which provides a new direction for the research and prevention of influenza B virus.

PMID: 30643075 [PubMed - in process]

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Surveillance for respiratory and diarrheal pathogens at the human-pig interface in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Latest Pubmed articles about Swine flu - Thu, 01/17/2019 - 20:00
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Surveillance for respiratory and diarrheal pathogens at the human-pig interface in Sarawak, Malaysia.

PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0201295

Authors: Borkenhagen LK, Mallinson KA, Tsao RW, Ha SJ, Lim WH, Toh TH, Anderson BD, Fieldhouse JK, Philo SE, Chong KS, Lindsley WG, Ramirez A, Lowe JF, Coleman KK, Gray GC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways.
STUDY: This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. Pig feces, pig oral secretions, bioaerosols, and worker nasal wash samples were collected and analyzed via rPCR and rRT-PCR for respiratory and diarrheal viruses.
RESULTS: In all, 55 pig fecal, 49 pig oral or water, 45 bioaerosol, and 78 worker nasal wash samples were collected across 16 sites. PCV2 was detected in 21 pig fecal, 43 pig oral or water, 3 bioaerosol, and 4 worker nasal wash samples. In addition, one or more bioaerosol or pig samples were positive for EV, IAV, and RVC, and one or more worker samples were positive for ADV, CoV, IBV, and IDV.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that nucleic acids from a number of targeted viruses were present in pig oral secretions and pig fecal samples, and that several viruses were detected in bioaerosol samples or in the nasal passages of humans with occupational exposure to pigs. These results demonstrate the need for future research in strengthening viral surveillance at the human-animal interface, specifically through expanded bioaerosol sampling efforts and a seroepidemiological study of individuals with exposure to pigs in this region for PCV2 infection.

PMID: 30052648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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